European Data Act, Final Text



Preamble 31 to 40.


(31) Directive (EU) 2016/943 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides that the acquisition, use or disclosure of a trade secret shall be considered to be lawful, inter alia, where such acquisition, use or disclosure is required or allowed by Union or national law. While this Regulation requires data holders to disclose certain data to users, or third parties of a user’s choice, even when such data qualify for protection as trade secrets, it should be interpreted in such a manner as to preserve the protection afforded to trade secrets under Directive (EU) 2016/943.

In this context, data holders should be able to require users, or third parties of a user’s choice, to preserve the confidentiality of data considered to be trade secrets. To that end, data holders should identify trade secrets prior to the disclosure, and should have the possibility to agree with users, or third parties of a user’s choice, on necessary measures to preserve their confidentiality, including by the use of model contractual terms, confidentiality agreements, strict access protocols, technical standards and the application of codes of conduct.

In addition to the use of model contractual terms to be developed and recommended by the Commission, the establishment of codes of conduct and technical standards related to the protection of trade secrets in handling the data could help achieve the aim of this Regulation and should be encouraged. Where there is no agreement on the necessary measures or where a user, or third parties of the user’s choice, fail to implement agreed measures or undermine the confidentiality of the trade secrets, the data holder should be able to withhold or suspend the sharing of data identified as trade secrets.

In such cases, the data holder should provide the decision in writing to the user or to the third party without undue delay and notify the competent authority of the Member State in which the data holder is established that it has withheld or suspended data sharing and identify which measures have not been agreed or implemented and, where relevant, which trade secrets have had their confidentiality undermined. Data holders cannot, in principle, refuse a data access request under this Regulation solely on the basis that certain data is considered to be a trade secret, as this would subvert the intended effects of this Regulation.

However, in exceptional circumstances, a data holder who is a trade secret holder should be able, on a case-by-case basis, to refuse a request for the specific data in question if it is able to demonstrate to the user or to the third party that, despite the technical and organisational measures taken by the user or by the third party, serious economic damage is highly likely to result from the disclosure of that trade secret. Serious economic damage implies serious and irreparable economic loss.

The data holder should duly substantiate its refusal in writing without undue delay to the user or to the third party and notify the competent authority. Such a substantiation should be based on objective elements, demonstrating the concrete risk of serious economic damage expected to result from a specific data disclosure and the reasons why the measures taken to safeguard the requested data are not considered to be sufficient.

A possible negative impact on cybersecurity can be taken into account in that context. Without prejudice to the right to seek redress before a court or tribunal of a Member State, where the user or a third party wishes to challenge the data holder’s decision to refuse or to withhold or suspend data sharing, the user or the third party can lodge a complaint with the competent authority, which should, without undue delay, decide whether and under which conditions data sharing should start or resume, or can agree with the data holder to refer the matter to a dispute settlement body. The exceptions to data access rights in this Regulation should not in any case limit the right of access and right to data portability of data subjects under Regulation (EU) 2016/679.


(32) The aim of this Regulation is not only to foster the development of new, innovative connected products or related services, stimulate innovation on aftermarkets, but also to stimulate the development of entirely novel services making use of the data concerned, including based on data from a variety of connected products or related services.

At the same time, this Regulations aims to avoid undermining the investment incentives for the type of connected product from which the data are obtained, for instance, by the use of data to develop a competing connected product which is considered to be interchangeable or substitutable by users, in particular on the basis of the connected product’s characteristics, its price and intended use.

This Regulation provides for no prohibition on the development of a related service using data obtained under this Regulation as this would have an undesirable discouraging effect on innovation. Prohibiting the use of data accessed under this Regulation for developing a competing connected product protects data holders’ innovation efforts. Whether a connected product competes with the connected product from which the data originates depends on whether the two connected products are in competition on the same product market.

This is to be determined on the basis of the established principles of Union competition law for defining the relevant product market. However, lawful purposes for the use of the data could include reverse engineering, provided that it complies with the requirements laid down in this Regulation and in Union or national law. This may be the case for the purposes of repairing or prolonging the lifetime of a connected product or for the provision of aftermarket services to connected products.


(33) A third party to whom data is made available may be a natural or legal person, such as a consumer, an enterprise, a research organisation, a not-for-profit organisation or an entity acting in a professional capacity. In making the data available to the third party, a data holder should not abuse its position to seek a competitive advantage in markets where the data holder and the third party may be in direct competition. The data holder should not therefore use any readily available data in order to derive insights about the economic situation, assets or production methods of, or the use by, the third party in any other manner that could undermine the commercial position of the third party on the markets in which the third party is active.

The user should be able to share non-personal data with third parties for commercial purposes. Upon the agreement with the user, and subject to the provisions of this Regulation, third parties should be able to transfer the data access rights granted by the user to other third parties, including in exchange for compensation. Business-to-business data intermediaries and personal information management systems (PIMS), referred to as data intermediation services in Regulation (EU) 2022/868, may support users or third parties in establishing commercial relations with an undetermined number of potential counterparties for any lawful purpose falling within the scope of this Regulation. They could play an instrumental role in aggregating access to data so that big data analyses or machine learning can be facilitated, provided that users remain in full control of whether to provide their data to such aggregation and the commercial terms under which their data are to be used.


(34) The use of a connected product or related service may, in particular when the user is a natural person, generate data that relates to the data subject. Processing of such data is subject to the rules established under Regulation (EU) 2016/679, including where personal and non-personal data in a dataset are inextricably linked. The data subject may be the user or another natural person. Personal data may only be requested by a controller or a data subject. A user who is the data subject is, under certain circumstances, entitled under Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to access personal data concerning that user and such rights are unaffected by this Regulation.

Under this Regulation, the user who is a natural person is further entitled to access all data generated by the use of a connected product, whether personal or non-personal. Where the user is not the data subject but an enterprise, including a sole trader, and not in cases of shared household use of the connected product, the user is considered to be a controller. Accordingly, such a user who as controller intends to request personal data generated by the use of a connected product or related service is required to have a legal basis for processing the data as required by Article 6(1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, such as the consent of the data subject or the performance of a contract to which the data subject is a party.

Such user should ensure that the data subject is appropriately informed of the specified, explicit and legitimate purposes for processing those data, and of how the data subject may exercise their rights effectively. Where the data holder and the user are joint controllers within the meaning of Article 26 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, they are required to determine, in a transparent manner by means of an arrangement between them, their respective responsibilities for compliance with that Regulation. It should be understood that such a user, once data has been made available, may in turn become a data holder if that user meets the criteria under this Regulation and thus becomes subject to the obligations to make data available under this Regulation.


(35) Product data or related service data should only be made available to a third party at the request of the user. This Regulation complements accordingly the right, provided for in Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, of data subjects to receive personal data concerning them in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format, as well as to port those data to another controller, where those data are processed by automated means on the basis of Article 6(1), point (a), or Article 9(2), point (a), or of a contract pursuant to Article 6(1), point (b) of that Regulation.

Data subjects also have the right to have the personal data transmitted directly from one controller to another, but only where that is technically feasible. Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 specifies that it pertains to data provided by the data subject but does not specify whether this necessitates active behaviour on the side of the data subject or whether it also applies to situations where a connected product or related service, by its design, observes the behaviour of a data subject or other information in relation to a data subject in a passive manner.

The rights provided for under this Regulation complement the right to receive and port personal data under Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in a number of ways. This Regulation grants users the right to access and make available to a third party any product data or related service data, irrespective of their nature as personal data, of the distinction between actively provided or passively observed data, and irrespective of the legal basis of processing. Unlike Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, this Regulation mandates and ensures the technical feasibility of third party access for all types of data falling within its scope, whether personal or non-personal, thereby ensuring that technical obstacles no longer hinder or prevent access to such data.

It also allows data holders to set reasonable compensation to be met by third parties, but not by the user, for costs incurred in providing direct access to the data generated by the user’s connected product. If a data holder and a third party are unable to agree on terms for such direct access, the data subject should in no way be prevented from exercising the rights laid down in Regulation (EU) 2016/679, including the right to data portability, by seeking remedies in accordance with that Regulation. It is to be understood in this context that, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679, a contract does not allow for the processing of special categories of personal data by the data holder or the third party.


(36) Access to any data stored in and accessed from terminal equipment is subject to Directive 2002/58/EC and requires the consent of the subscriber or user within the meaning of that Directive unless it is strictly necessary for the provision of an information society service explicitly requested by the user or by the subscriber or for the sole purpose of the transmission of a communication. Directive 2002/58/EC protects the integrity of a user’s terminal equipment regarding the use of processing and storage capabilities and the collection of information. Internet of Things equipment is considered to be terminal equipment if it is directly or indirectly connected to a public communications network.


(37) In order to prevent the exploitation of users, third parties to whom data has been made available at the request of the user should process those data only for the purposes agreed with the user and share them with another third party only with the agreement of the user to such data sharing.


(38) In line with the data minimisation principle, third parties should access only information that is necessary for the provision of the service requested by the user. Having received access to data, the third party should process it for the purposes agreed with the user without interference from the data holder. It should be as easy for the user to refuse or discontinue access by the third party to the data as it is for the user to authorise access.

Neither third parties nor data holders should make the exercise of choices or rights by the user unduly difficult, including by offering choices to the user in a non-neutral manner, or by coercing, deceiving or manipulating the user, or by subverting or impairing the autonomy, decision-making or choices of the user, including by means of a user digital interface or a part thereof.

In that context, third parties or data holders should not rely on so-called ‘dark patterns’ in designing their digital interfaces. Dark patterns are design techniques that push or deceive consumers into decisions that have negative consequences for them. Those manipulative techniques can be used to persuade users, in particular vulnerable consumers, to engage in unwanted behaviour, to deceive users by nudging them into decisions on data disclosure transactions or to unreasonably bias the decision-making of the users of the service in such a way as to subvert or impair their autonomy, decision-making and choice.

Common and legitimate commercial practices that comply with Union law should not in themselves be regarded as constituting dark patterns. Third parties and data holders should comply with their obligations under relevant Union law, in particular the requirements laid down in Directives 98/6/EC and 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and in Directives 2005/29/EC and 2011/83/EU.


(39) Third parties should also refrain from using data falling within the scope of this Regulation to profile individuals unless such processing activities are strictly necessary to provide the service requested by the user, including in the context of automated decision-making. The requirement to erase data when no longer required for the purpose agreed with the user, unless otherwise agreed in relation to non-personal data, complements the data subject’s right to erasure pursuant to Article 17 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

Where a third party is a provider of a data intermediation service, the safeguards for the data subject provided for by Regulation (EU) 2022/868 apply. The third party may use the data to develop a new and innovative connected product or related service but not to develop a competing connected product.


(40) Start-ups, small enterprises, enterprises that qualify as a medium-sized enterprises under Article 2 of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC and enterprises from traditional sectors with less-developed digital capabilities struggle to obtain access to relevant data. This Regulation aims to facilitate access to data for those entities, while ensuring that the corresponding obligations are as proportionate as possible to avoid overreach. At the same time, a small number of very large enterprises have emerged with considerable economic power in the digital economy through the accumulation and aggregation of vast volumes of data and the technological infrastructure for monetising them.

Those very large enterprises include undertakings that provide core platform services controlling whole platform ecosystems in the digital economy and which existing or new market operators are unable to challenge or contest. Regulation (EU) 2022/1925 of the European Parliament and of the Council aims to redress those inefficiencies and imbalances by allowing the Commission to designate an undertaking as a ‘gatekeeper’, and imposes a number of obligations on such gatekeepers, including a prohibition to combine certain data without consent and an obligation to ensure effective rights to data portability under Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. In accordance with Regulation (EU) 2022/1925, and given the unrivalled ability of those undertakings to acquire data, it is not necessary to achieve the objective of this Regulation, and would therefore be disproportionate for data holders made subject to such obligations, to include gatekeeper as beneficiaries of the data access right.

Such inclusion would also likely limit the benefits of this Regulation for SMEs, linked to the fairness of the distribution of data value across market actors. This means that an undertaking that provides core platform services that has been designated as a gatekeeper cannot request or be granted access to users’ data generated by the use of a connected product or related service or by a virtual assistant pursuant to this Regulation. Furthermore, third parties to whom data are made available at the request of the user may not make the data available to a gatekeeper.

For instance, the third party may not subcontract the service provision to a gatekeeper. However, this does not prevent third parties from using data processing services offered by a gatekeeper. Nor does it prevent those undertakings from obtaining and using the same data through other lawful means. The access rights provided for in this Regulation contribute to a wider choice of services for consumers. As voluntary agreements between gatekeepers and data holders remain unaffected, the limitation on granting access to gatekeepers would not exclude them from the market or prevent them from offering their services.