European Data Act, Final Text



Preamble 111 to 119.


(111) In order to help enterprises to draft and negotiate contracts, the Commission should develop and recommend non-binding model contractual terms for business-to-business data sharing contracts, where necessary taking into account the conditions in specific sectors and the existing practices with voluntary data sharing mechanisms.

Those model contractual terms should be primarily a practical tool to help in particular SMEs to conclude a contract. When used widely and integrally, those model contractual terms should also have the beneficial effect of influencing the design of contracts regarding access to and the use of data and therefore lead more broadly towards fairer contractual relations when accessing and sharing data.


(112) In order to eliminate the risk that holders of data in databases obtained or generated by means of physical components, such as sensors, of a connected product and a related service or other machine-generated data, claim the sui generis right under Article 7 of Directive 96/9/EC, and in so doing hinder, in particular, the effective exercise of the right of users to access and use data and the right to share data with third parties under this Regulation, it should be clarified that the sui generis right does not apply to such databases.

That does not affect the possible application of the sui generis right under Article 7 of Directive 96/9/EC to databases containing data falling outside the scope of this Regulation, provided that the requirements for protection pursuant to paragraph 1 of that Article are fulfilled.


(113) In order to take account of technical aspects of data processing services, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 TFEU should be delegated to the Commission in respect of supplementing this Regulation in order to establish a monitoring mechanism on switching charges imposed by providers of data processing services on the market, and to further specify the essential requirements in respect of interoperability for participants in data spaces that offer data or data services to other participants.

It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level, and that those consultations be conducted in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 April 2016 on Better Law-Making. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States’ experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts.


(114) In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission in respect of the adoption of common specifications to ensure the interoperability of data, of data sharing mechanisms and services, as well as of common European data spaces, common specifications on the interoperability of data processing services, and common specifications on the interoperability of smart contracts.

Implementing powers should also be conferred on the Commission for the purpose of publishing the references of harmonised standards and common specifications for the interoperability of data processing services in a central Union standards repository for the interoperability of data processing services. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council.


(115) This Regulation should be without prejudice to rules addressing needs specific to individual sectors or areas of public interest. Such rules may include additional requirements on the technical aspects of data access, such as interfaces for data access, or how data access could be provided, for example directly from the product or via data intermediation services.

Such rules may also include limits on the rights of data holders to access or use user data, or other aspects beyond data access and use, such as governance aspects or security requirements, including cybersecurity requirements. This Regulation should also be without prejudice to more specific rules in the context of the development of common European data spaces or, subject to the exceptions provided for in this Regulation, to Union and national law providing for access to and authorising the use of data for scientific research purposes.


(116) This Regulation should not affect the application of the rules of competition, in particular Articles 101 and 102 TFEU. The measures provided for in this Regulation should not be used to restrict competition in a manner contrary to the TFEU.


(117) In order to allow actors within the scope of this Regulation to adapt to the new rules provided for herein, and to make the necessary technical arrangements, those rules should apply from 12 September 2025.


(118) The European Data Protection Supervisor and the European Data Protection Board were consulted in accordance with Article 42(1) and (2) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 and delivered their opinion on 4 May 2022.


(119) Since the objectives of this Regulation, namely ensuring fairness in the allocation of value from data among actors in the data economy and fostering fair access to and use of data in order to contribute to establishing a genuine internal market for data, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States but can rather, by reason of the scale or effects of the action and cross-border use of data, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.